Work Practice and Technology Associates


+1 650 325-1639

Last updated: November, 1999

Professional interests

Participatory design and the evolution of tailorable computer systems, document repositories and document classification systems, connections between ethnographically informed work practice studies and system design, hypermedia and open object-oriented system design, computer support for collaboration, human-computer interaction.


Ph.D. in Computer Science, University of Maryland, 1983.

MA. in Mathematics, Cornell University, 1977.

B.A. with distinction in Mathematics and Computer Studies (double major), Northwestern University, 1975.

Positions held

September 1999 —

Participatory Design consultant at the Global Fund for Women, a non-profit that supports international groups working for women’s human rights. September 1992 — July 1999 Research scientist, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center

Research in ethnographically-influenced participatory/cooperative design, tailorable system design, open hypermedia.

Cooperative prototyping through the Integrator project: design and implementation of web-based user interface and document database support for text and image-based document retrieval. Primary settings: a state department of transportation and a law firm.

August 1991 - August 1992 Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University.

Teaching in hypertext/hypermedia, tailorable computer systems.

Research in participatory design and system development, hypermedia, tailorable systems and open architectures.

Invited talks at Lund University, Stockholm Royal Institute of Technology, Rønneby Soft Center.

August 1989 - July 1991 Associate Professor, Institute for Information and Media Science, Aarhus University.

Teaching in hypertext/hypermedia, object-oriented programming.

Research in participatory design and system development, collaborative prototyping, hypermedia.

Invited talks at Lund University, Copenhagen University, University of Oslo, University of Aalborg, Stockholm Royal Institute of Technology, Mjølner II seminar at Scanticon.

July 1984 - July 1989 Researcher, Xerox Corporation

Researcher on the Workplace project. Co-design and implementation of the Activity Representation Tool to support the work of video-based interaction analysis.

Research in hypertext, computer-supported collaboration, tailorable systems.

Work on design and development of the NoteCards system in Interlisp-D.

Supervisor, NoteCards development team.

January 1984 - June 1984 Faculty Research Assistant, University of Maryland

Deputy administrator of the Laboratory for Parallel Computation.

January 1979 - December 1983 Graduate Research Assistant, University of Maryland

Research in Artificial Intelligence, Text Structuring and Parallel Processing

September 1982 - December 1982 Consultant, Knowledge Engineering, Inc.

Port of and modifications to Maryland windows and Franz lisp environment.

Professional activities

Member of ACM and CPSR

Program committee: European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW) 1999.

Program committee: Hypertext and ECHT conferences: 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1987.

CHI conference paper reviewer: 2000, 1998, 1994

Participant: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Open Hypermedia Workshops (1994, 1996, 1997, 1998)

Editorial board CSCW Journal: 1992 - 1996

Program committee: PDC’98, PDC'96.

Tutorial for ECHT ‘94 with Kaj Grønbæk: "Using the Dexter Hypertext Reference Model as a basis for object-oriented hypermedia system design"

Tutorial for HT ‘96 with Kaj Grønbæk: "Object-oriented hypermedia system design--a Dexter-based Approach"

Program committee: Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL'95)

Program co-chair: 1994 Participatory Design Conference (PDC'94)

CACM Special issue guest editor (with Kaj Grønbæk), February 1994.

Papers review committee: InterCHI 1992

Member of the Dexter group of hypertext/hypermedia system designers (met from 1988-1990).

Panel organizer/moderator at European Conference on Hypertext, ECHT'90: "Open hypermedia architectures and linking protocols."

Panelist at European Conference on Hypertext, ECHT'90: "What's specific about user interfaces for hypertext systems?"

Tutorial at Hypertext '89: "User interfaces for hypermedia: an anchor-based perspective."

Panelist at Human Factors Annual Meeting 1988, Anaheim, CA: "Hypertext: A Human Interface Frontier"

Panelist at CHI '88 Washington, D.C.: "A Critical Assessment of Hypertext Systems"

Panelist at CHI+GI '87 Toronto: "Social Science and System Design: Interdisciplinary Collaborations"



Trigg, R., A Network-Based Approach to Text Handling for the Online Scientific Community, Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Maryland (University Microfilms #8429934), Nov. 1983.  (For overview and excerpts, see http://www.workpractice.com/trigg/thesis-default.html.)


Grønbæk, K., & Trigg, R. H. (1999). From web to workplace: Designing open hypermedia systems. MIT Press. (http://mitpress.mit.edu/book-home.tcl?isbn=0262071916)

Journal articles

Suchman, L., Blomberg, J., Orr, J. E., & Trigg, R. (1999). Reconstructing technologies as social practice. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(3), 392-408.

Blomberg, J., Suchman, L., & Trigg, R. (1996). Reflections on a Work-Oriented Design Project. Human-Computer Interaction, 11(3), 237-265.

Randall H. Trigg, Susan Anderson (eds.) Special issue on Current perspectives on Participatory Design, Introduction. Human-Computer Interaction, 11(3), 181-185.

Grønbæk, K. & R. Trigg. (1994) Design issues for a Dexter-based hypermedia system. Communications of the ACM, Volume 37, No. 2, February. pp 40-49. Earlier version in: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Hypertext ECHT-92, D. Lucarella, J. Nanard, M. Nanard, P. Paolini, eds. Milan, Italy, Nov 30 - Dec 4, 1992. pp 191-200.

Grønbæk, K. & R. Trigg. (1994) Guest editors' introduction to the special issue on hypermedia. Communications of the ACM, Volume 37, No. 2, February. pp 26-29.

Halasz, F. and Schwartz, M. (edited by Grønbæk, K. and Trigg, R.H.) The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model. Communications of the ACM 37, 2 (Feb. 1994), pp. 31-39.

Randall H. Trigg, Susanne Bødker, Kaj Grønbæk. Open-ended Interaction in Cooperative Prototyping: A video-based analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Information Science, Vol. 3, 1991. pp 63-86. (Earlier version appeared in Proceedings of the 13th IRIS, Turku, Finland, August, 1990.)

Trigg, R.H. Computer Support for Transcribing Recorded Activity. SIGCHI Bulletin, Fall 1989.

Irish, P.M., Trigg, R.H. Supporting Collaboration in Hypermedia: Issues and Experiences. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, March, 1989.

Trigg, R.H. Guided Tours and Tabletops: Tools for Communicating in a Hypertext Environment. ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems, Vol 6, No. 4, October 1988, pp 398-414. (Earlier version appeared in Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, September 1988, Portland, Oregon.)

Trigg, R., Weiser, M. TEXTNET: A Network-Based Approach to Text Handling. ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 1986, Pages 1-23.

Edited collection

Trigg, R., Anderson, S. I., & Dykstra-Erickson, E. (Eds.). (1994). PDC'94: Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference. Palo Alto, CA: Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, P.O. Box 717, Palo Alto, CA 94302-0717.

Refereed conference papers

Trigg, R. H., Blomberg, J., & Suchman, L. (1999). Moving document collections online: The evolution of a shared repository. Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW'99). S. Bødker, M. Kyng, K. Schmidt (eds.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. 331-350.

Grønbæk, K., & Trigg, R. H. (1996). Toward a Dexter-based model for open hypermedia: Unifying embedded references and link objects. In Proceedings of Hypertext'96. Washington, DC, March 10-14. ACM Press, 149-160.

Jeanette Blomberg, Lucy Suchman and Randall Trigg (1995). Back to Work: Renewing old agendas for cooperative design. Proceedings of the Third Decennial Conference on Computers in Context: Joining Forces in Design (pp 1-9), Aarhus, Denmark, August 14-18.

Jeanette Blomberg, Lucy Suchman and Randall Trigg (1994). Reflections on a Work-Oriented Design Project. Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference (PDC'94), Chapel Hill, North Carolina, October 27-28; pp 99-109. Also in G. Bowker, L. Star, W. Turner, L. Gasser (eds.) Social Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. 189-215.

Trigg, R. H., & Bødker, S. (1994). From implementation to design: Tailoring and the emergence of systematization in CSCW. In R. Furuta & C. Neuwirth (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'94). New York: ACM Press, 45-54.

Rao, R., Card, S. K., Johnson, W., Klotz, L., & Trigg, R. (1994). Protofoil: Storing and Finding the Information Worker's Paper Documents in an Electronic File Cabinet. In B. Adelson, S. Dumais, & J. Olson (Eds.), Proceedings of CHI '94 Conference (pp. 180-185). Boston, Massachusetts: ACM Press. April 24-28.

Randall Trigg (1994). Internet communities: Access, privacy and boundary crossings. A position statement for the CSCW'94 workshop (October 22, 1994): Critical considerations in the creation and control of personal / collective communications spaces.

Mogensen, P. & R. Trigg. Artifacts as triggers for participatory analysis. Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference, M. J. Muller, S. Kuhn, J. A. Meskill, eds. Cambridge, MA, November, 1992. pp. 55-62.

Kaj Grønbæk, Anette Hviid, Randall H. Trigg. ApplBuilder - an Object-Oriented Application Generator Supporting Rapid Prototyping. The 4th International Conference on Software Engineering & Its Applications, Toulouse, France, December 9-13, 1991.

Trigg, R.H., Irish, P.M. Hypertext Habitats: Experiences of Writers in NoteCards, Proceedings of Hypertext '87, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, November, 1987.

Trigg, R.H., Moran, T.P., Halasz, F.G. Adaptability and Tailorability in NoteCards. Proceedings of INTERACT '87, Stuttgart, West Germany, September 1987, pp 723-728.

Morrell, K., Trigg, R.H. From Books to Workstations: Problems in developing a computer-based curriculum in the Humanities. Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Bases in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Montgomery, Alabama, July 1987.

Halasz, F.G., Moran, T.P., Trigg, R.H. NoteCards in a Nutshell. Proc. of ACM CHI + GI '87 Conference, Toronto, Canada, April 5-9, 1987.

Trigg, R.H., Suchman, L., Halasz, F.G. Supporting Collaboration in NoteCards. Proc. of Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Austin, Texas, December 3-5, 1986.

Suchman, L.A., Trigg, R.H. A Framework for Studying Research Collaboration. Proc. of Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Austin, Texas, December 3-5, 1986.

Rieger, C., Trigg, R., Bane, R. ZMOB: A New Computing Engine for AI. Proc. of IJCAI-81, Vancouver (also University of Maryland CS TR-1028), Aug. 1981.

Book chapters

Blomberg, J., Suchman, L., & Trigg, R. (1997). Back to Work: Renewing Old Agendas for Cooperative Design. In M. Kyng & L. Mathiassen (Eds.), Computers and Design in Context. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 267-287.

Lucy Suchman and Randall H. Trigg. Artificial Intelligence as Craftwork. In J. Lave and S. Chaiklin (eds.). Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1993. pp 144-178.

Grønbæk, K., Hviid, A., and Trigg, R. ApplBuilder - an Application Generator. In Knudsen, J.L., Løfgren, M., Madsen, O.L., and Magnusson, B. (eds.) Object-Oriented Software Development Environments - The Mjølner Approach. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1993. pp. 570-577.

Randall H. Trigg. From trailblazing to guided tours: The legacy of Vannevar Bush's vision of hypertext use. In (eds. Paul D. Kahn & James Nyce) From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind's Machine, Academic Press, December, 1991.

Lucy Suchman and Randall H. Trigg. Understanding Practice: Video as a Medium for Reflection and Design. In Joan Greenbaum & Morten Kyng (eds.), Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, February 1991. Reprinted in Ronald Baecker, Jonathan Grudin, William Buxton, and Saul Greenberg (eds.),Readings in Human-Computer Interaction: Toward the Year 2000, 2nd Edition, Morgan Kaufmann, to appear in 1994.

Trigg, R.H., Suchman, L.A. Collaborative Writing in NoteCards. In R. McAleese (ed.), Hypertext Volume 1, Ablex, 1989, pp 45-61.

Workshops, symposia, unrefereed conferences

Trigg, R. H. (1998). A straw model for link traversal in open hypermedia systems. To appear in Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Open Hypermedia Systems. Pittsburgh, PA, June 20-21.

Trigg, R. H. (1997). Giving good demo. Position statement for the 1997 Oksnøen Symposium, Sausalito, CA.

Trigg, R. H., & Grønbæk, K. (1997). Heterogeneity, Structure, and CSCW: Three Challenges for Open Hypermedia. In Proceedings of 3rd Workshop on Open Hypermedia Systems. Southampton, England, April 6-11.

Trigg, R. H. (1996). Contextualizing Images: The 24 Hours in Cyberspace project. Position statement for the 1996 Oksnøen Symposium, Oksnøen, Norway.

Blomberg, J., & Trigg, R. H. (1995). "Read/Write Access": Negotiation and translation at the border between ethnography and system development. Paper presented at the American Anthropological Association meetings, Washington, DC, November.

Trigg, R. H. (1995). Locating the home(page)less: Representing others on the World Wide Web. Position statement for the 1995 Oksnøen Symposium, Oksnøen, Norway.

Jeanette Blomberg, Lucy Suchman, Randy Trigg (1993). Reflections on Work-Oriented Design. In G. Bowker, L. Gasser, L. Star, W. Turner (eds.) Proceedings of workshop on Social science research, technical systems and cooperative work March 8-10. Paris. pp. 84-98.

Mogensen, P. & R. Trigg. Retrofitting and integration: Tailoring in practice. Position statement for Oksnøen Symposium, May 1992.

J. Lindskov Knudsen, G. Hedin, B. Magnusson, R.H. Trigg, and E.S. Sandvad. Documenting Object Oriented Systems. In Proceedings of the Nordic Workshop on Programming Environment Research, Trondheim, Norway, June 1990.

Trigg, R. Software on ZMOB: An Object-Oriented Perspective, Proc. IEEE Workshop on CAPAIDM, Hot Springs, Nov. 1981.

Technical reports

Trigg, R. H. (1994). Ethics in a technology tailoring borderland (Technical Report No. SPL-94-033, P94-00006). Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Systems and Practices Lab.

Bødker, S., Christiansen, E., Ehn, P., Markussen, R., Mogensen, P., & Trigg, R. (1993). The AT-Project: Practical research in cooperative design (DAIMI No. PB-454). Computer Science Department, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Jeremy Roschelle, Roy Pea, Randall Trigg. VIDEONOTER: A Tool for Exploratory Video Analysis, Institute for Research on Learning, IRL Report No. IRL90-0021, March 1990.

Allen, E., Trigg, R., Wood, R. Maryland Artificial Intelligence Group Franz Lisp Environment, University of Maryland CS TR-1226 (Second Edition), December 1983.

Weiser, M., Torek, C., Trigg, R., Wood, R. The Maryland Window Systems, University of Maryland CS TR-1271, January 1983.

Weiser, M., Israel, B., Stanfill, C., Trigg, R., Wood, R. Working Papers in Knowledge Representation and Acquisition, University of Maryland CS TR-1175, June 1982.

Trigg, R.H. A Parallel Approach to the Interactive Design and Simulation of Mechanisms. University of Maryland, TR-992, Dec. 1980.

Rieger, C., Bane, J., Trigg, R. ZMOB: A Highly Parallel Multiprocessor. University of Maryland, TR-911, May 1980.

Trigg, R.H. A Frame Based Lisp Interpreter. University of Maryland CS TR-777, 1979.

Patents filed

D/97346; IP/961289 James Mahoney, Jeanette Blomberg, Randall H. Trigg, Christian Shin. "System For Dynamically Specifying Layout Components Of Document Images", November 1997.

D/97493; IP/961296 Daniel Bobrow, James Mahoney, Jeanette Blomberg, Randall H. Trigg. "System For Summarizing A Corpus Of Documents By Assembling User Specified Layout Components", November 1997.

Patent awarded

Randall H. Trigg, Peggy M. Irish, Lucy A. Suchman. Automatically creating a second workspace operation record including history data and a unit ID based on a first workspace operation. U.S. Patent 5,159,669, October 27, 1992.

In progress

Jeanette Blomberg, Randall H. Trigg. (In preparation). Co-constructing the relevance of work practice for CSCW design: A case study of translation and mediation.

Randall H. Trigg. Participatory Design meets the MOP: Informing the design of tailorable computer systems. Previously appeared as: Participatory Design meets the MOP: Accountability in the design of tailorable computer systems, Proceedings of the 15th IRIS (Information systems Research seminar In Scandinavia), Gro Bjerknes, Tone Bratteteig, Karlheinz Kautz (eds.), August 1992, Larkollen, Norway. pp 643-656.

Invited talks

Numerous guest lectures in hypermedia, participatory design, tailorability, and CSCW, for classes and seminars in the computer science, information science, and anthropology departments of colleges and universities including: Stanford University, University of California at Berkeley, University of California at Irvine, San Jose State University, Aarhus University in Denmark, Aalborg University in Denmark, Oslo University in Norway, Rønneby SoftCenter in Sweden, Royal Technical University in Stockholm, Sweden.

Trigg, R. H. (1996). Hypermedia as integration: Recollections, reflections and exhortations. Keynote address: Hypertext '96 Conference, Washington, DC. : http://www.workpractice.com/trigg/HT96-keynote/.

Interventions and Integrations: Experiences from a work-oriented design project. Information and Computer Science Department, University of California at Irvine, November 6, 1995.

Invited talks on Work-Oriented Design (9/15/95) and Tailorability (9/18/95) at SoftCenter, Rønneby, Sweden.

(with Kaj Grønbæk) Hypermedia in complex organizational and technical contexts. Workshop on Social Contexts of Hypermedia, Department of Informatics, Umeå University, Sweden, February 16-17, 1995.

Participatory Design. Student Pugwash national annual meeting, Stanford University, January 26, 1995.

Bringing together ethnography, participatory design, and basic technology development. Center for Informatics, Aalborg University, May 9, 1994.

The Work-Oriented Design project: Bringing together ethnography, participatory design, and basic technology development. Information and Media Sciences Department, Aarhus University, September 27, 1993.